Musically, the three-movement work is characterised by a free use of the normal sonata kind. His focus is on the third motion, a posh set of variations as in op. 111.
The compositional beginnings of op. 109 might be traced again to the primary months of 1820. They preceded Beethoven’s negotiations with Adolf Schlesinger, the publisher of his final three sonatas. Current analysis means that Friedrich Starke requested Beethoven to write down a contribution for his piano anthology Wiener Pianoforteschule. Beethoven interrupted work on the Missa solemnis. In the end, nevertheless, he provided Starke the Bagatelles op. 119, nos. 7–11.
In the midst of music historical past, there was a lot hypothesis and philosophizing concerning the character of the person keys. It has usually been doubted whether or not the keys have any which means in any respect.
Nevertheless, particularly within the final three piano sonatas, which in a sure means might be thought-about a pianistic abstract of Beethoven’s world of concepts, the selection of keys is actually no coincidence, however well-considered.
This turns into clear when one recollects the function performed by keys in Beethoven’s solely opera, Fidelio. C minor and C main stand for evil and good, for tyranny and freedom, for darkness and light-weight, even for hell and heaven. As within the opera and even within the fifth symphony, Beethoven chooses these two keys in his final sonata, op. to defeat the evil on this planet and to create a world the place “all males change into brothers”. The dedication of this sonata to Archduke Rudolph could even include a direct attraction to a political authority to assist a liberation motion.
Within the opera, A flat main is the important thing of Florestan languishing within the dungeon, with whom Beethoven presumably identifies within the A flat main Sonata op. 110. That is virtually compellingly urged by the easy incontrovertible fact that this sonata is the one one that doesn’t bear a dedication, i.e. that it stays fully in Beethoven’s possession and offers along with his very personal internal being.
Lastly, within the opera, E main is the important thing of Leonore, who escalates in heroic pathos of loving self-sacrifice within the E main a part of her nice aria. The concept of salvation by means of the “eternally female” (Goethe) is actually additionally mirrored in Beethoven’s mysterious “immortal lover”. In opposition to this background, it may hardly be a coincidence that the Sonata op. 109, which is devoted to “Miss Maximiliana Brentano”, is in the important thing of E main.